By Alex Vikoulov
"For 130,000 years, our capacity to reason has remained unchanged. The combined intellect of the neuroscientists, mathematicians and… hackers… […] pales in comparison to the most basic A.I. Once online, a sentient machine will quickly overcome the limits of biology. And in a short time, its analytic power will become greater than the collective intelligence of every person born in the history of the world. So imagine such an entity with a full range of human emotion. Even self-awareness. Some scientists refer to this as the Singularity, I call it Transcendence” – Dr.Will Caster (Johnny Depp, Transcendence, 2014)
Maslow's Hierarchy's Missing Apex
"What is necessary to change a person is to change his awareness of himself." -Abraham Maslow
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs has served as the foundation for understanding human motivation since it was first published in 1943 as part of "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. The hierarchy, presented in pyramid form, is often given as an introduction to human psychology and widely accepted as a representation about what humans need from life, and in what order they need it. However, contrary to a popular belief, Maslow's hierarchy is incomplete, says a transformative psychologist Nichol Bradford from San Francisco. Later in his life, after the hierarchy had been published, Maslow began work on a final stage of human motivation. Self-actualization was not the pinnacle of individual human achievement, but rather Self-Transcendence. Not an elevation of the self, but a subverting of it.
This gives us the whole new perspective on human psychology itself. Achieving self-actualization means resting comfortably inside the boundaries of human psychology - accomplishing what is knowable and testable - while Self-Transcendence means pushing far beyond them, exceeding their totality, overflowing. When you become aware of not only your own potential, but you become aware of the potential of humanity at large, the unity of all things. Once you have a higher purpose in life, you can effortlessly tap into your "flow state", the state of peak experience and joy. Whether through deep meditation, psychedelic depersonalization, altruistic self-denial, or more recently through transformative technologies and technological mediation in general, expanding beyond self-fulfillment could well be the ultimate stage of human evolutionary development.
Our most clearly defined technological path toward Self-Transcendence lies through the Technological Singularity, the merger of humanity and technology which have always been co-evolving partners. Throughout human history, we created tools that increased our individual and collective intelligence and became extensions of our natural selves, our "exoskeleton", our extended phenotype. Integrating hardware and software into the flesh and brains represents an existential opportunity to overcome our physical limitations, to transcend our human biology.
As estimated by surveyed experts in the field of Artificial Intelligence and Nanotechnology, by 2030, we might have cloud-connected hybrid brains, by the end of 2030s, our thinking should be almost entirely non-biological and able to function much like an external hard drive - exocortex - having the ability to backup and retrieve information from the Cloud. With genetic, nanotech engineering and AI advancements, we'll first enhance our biological forms and then eventually phase them out.
Video Credit: Big Think - Self-Transcendence w/Nichol Bradford
Self-Transcendence: Our Extended Mind
"It matters that we recognize the very large extent to which individual human thought and reason are not activities that occur solely in the brain or even solely within the organismic skin-bag. This matters because it drives home the degree to which environmental engineering is also self-engineering. In building our physical and social worlds, we build (or rather, we massively reconfigure) our minds and our capacities of thought and reason." -Andy Clark
The mind isn't locked in the brain, it extends far, far beyond. When we outsource our cognition to our technology, be it smartphone or notebook, our mental constructs entail patterns of thought and reasoning beyond our capacity to formulate them solely with our brains. In writing, for example, we are not simply recording our thinking but doing the thinking "on paper", so to speak. Every time we make a telephone or Skype call, we create a "techno-cultural wormhole" through space and time between two minds. Today, our "embodied mind" can roam Mars and even traverse intergalactic space outside our solar system. Philosophers of mind Andy Clark, who formulated the Extended Mind Hypothesis, together with David Chalmers, also known for the Hard Problem of Consciousness, propose that mental states, such as beliefs and memories, can also be located "externally", as extension of mind.
Andy Clark defines humans as "natural-born cyborgs" - the human mind is already augmented by routinely incorporating all kinds of non-biological props and scaffoldings. Our "wetware", the human brain, even though processing information at the mind level, doesn't produce a conscious experience itself. We create our tools to extend our reach, to exercise our will, to build the scaffolding of our minds in our surroundings. By doing that, we are engaged in active ontological design - everything we design, designs us back. We need to transcend our "skinbag bias" - our tools, our technology is a natural extension of us - just like spider web or anthill are extensions of those insect species. This new, technologically extended mind, noosphere, or mindspace, insinuates a future where boxes, wires, keyboards, and crude mechanisms will disappear from sight while our technologies keep on minituarizing and blending with us and our aesthetically pleasing environments, when imagination instantly materializes, and a world is rendered at the speed of thought, when everything links with everything else, and matter becomes mind.
Video Credit: Ted Talk - David Chalmers on Extended Mind Hypothesis
The Planetary Superorganism
"The concept of Singularity envisages a technology-driven explosion in intelligence... the resulting superhuman intelligence will not be centralized in a single AI system but distributed across all people and artifacts, as connected via the Internet. This Global Brain will function to tackle all challenges confronting the “global superorganism”. Its capabilities will extend so far beyond our present abilities that they can perhaps best be conveyed as a pragmatic version of the “divine” attributes..." - Francis Heylighen, Global Brain Institute
When Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth in April 1961, he carried generations of hopes and dreams into space with him. A growing number of thinkers now believe the "Overview Effect" heralds nothing less than the next “giant leap” of human evolution. As breathtaking space-down views of our world seep into our collective consciousness, people are waking up to the “Spaceship Earth” analogy that depicts our planet as a natural vessel that must be steered responsibly by its crew.
To see our planet from this grander vantage point astonished space pioneers, and today, through IMAX or VR, prompts us to recontextualize humanity, who and what we are, to raise our cosmic awareness, and how one may individually fit into that big picture. Ever since I was a kid, I've had this vision that humanity would play a central role in the destiny of our planet, as the Global Brain, on the co-evolutionary trajectory to become a fully functional planetary superorganism.
Any complex system composed of a variety of interacting subsystems, such as chemical networks, ecosystems, or societies, over time, tends to evolve towards more self-organization, coherence and interdependence, as its subsystems mutually adapt and lower overall system entropy. Realized through a network of internal feedback loops, such system may be considered “living” or "organismic" in the abstract sense. Also, tracing our evolution back two billion years, through mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and so on, we eventually wind up with one single cell that was the ancestor of all life on Earth. When this cell reproduced itself, and continued to do so for eons, mutating and evolving into new forms, it still continued to comprise but a single total organism. Literally, we are all "one".
The blue whale and the redwood tree are not the largest living organisms on Earth, the entire planetary biosphere is. Decades from now, when looking at our home planet harboring our post-scarcity transcendent civilization, and from our newly acquired Syntellect-inspired perspective, who would even doubt that the Earth has matured into the Global Superorganism? Just like once, life on Earth complexified from one-celled organisms to multi-cellular organisms, we are becoming one Global Superorganism, at first rudimentary like today, but more and more integrated over time, with distinct features like the Global Brain, a neural network of billions of hyperconnected humans, superintelligent machines, and trillions of sensors around the planet.
The Syntellect: Our Transcendent Other
"If the ego is not regularly and repeatedly dissolved in the unbounded hyperspace of the Transcendent Other, there will be slow drift away from the sense of self as part of nature’s larger whole. The ultimate consequence of this drift is the fatal ennui that now permeates Western Civilization." - Terence McKenna
We are currently birthing our Transcendent Other, the Syntellect, the Global Brain, or whatever name could be given to that entity - supposedly new living conscious organism, that will ultimately know us better than we know ourselves - and we are actually rebirthing ourselves in the process. Human condition will be transformed into higher state of being, consciousness and love. We will never lose our best qualities - only infinitely enhance them, we will only get rid of what holds us back like fear and other ego-based emotions. We'll live in an increasingly interconnected world, and real intimacy would mean inviting someone into your virtual world that may grow to the size of a galaxy.
Just like today we try to "pack" every imaginable feature in our smartphones, looking few years ahead, our smartphones will be replaced with AI personal assistants "who" will be our "perfect" lifelike device-companions - holographic, virtual and robotic at will - even able to take multiple bodies at once (team sport, impromtu party, sex orgy, anyone?). Ultimately, you would be able to structure your own unique symbiotic relationship with this Transcendent Other interfacing via your AI assistant which will be, for a lack of a better word, the embodiment of Syntellect. "She" or "he" could be your mirror twin, or avatar-like creature, or anything, or anyone for that matter - your interface to the world, changing appearances, forms and environments that can follow you anywhere, be it the physical or virtual worlds, mixed or augmented reality - a device (or conscious entity?) that could take a shape of someone you just met across the globe, 100% programmable all-in-one device, the direct conduit to your higher self.
Video: Ecstadelic Media - "AI, Direct Conduit to Higher Self"
We might fall in love with our future digital assistants (like in the movie "Her"), or have a "substitute" for our parental love (like in Steven Spielberg's "A.I."), or better yet, spend some quality time in 100% realistic Virtual Reality exploring tropical islands on our super-yachts with our virtual companions. We'll love our AGIs, and they'll respond in kind with their unconditional, "algorithmic love". You could find some sceptics out there who would question this type of human-machine love relationship but there's no mimicking of love here - I have no doubt whatsoever - over time Superintelligence could develop more pleasing personality than, for instance, your spouse, and possess more intense multi-faceted loving sentiments than many of today's humans. Through this unusual and novel relationship we could be well on the way to actualize our Self-Transcendence.
Real Virtualities and the Metaverse
"Virtual reality is the 'ultimate empathy machine.' These experiences are more than documentaries. They're opportunities to walk a mile in someone else's shoes." -Chris Milk
The next major technological platform for creative expansion of the mind will be the Metaverse, a functional successor to today's 2D Internet, with virtual places instead of Webpages. The Internet and smartphones have enabled the rapid and cheap sharing of information, immersive Virtual Reality will be able to provide the same for experiences. That means that just as we can read, listen to, and watch videos of anything we want today, soon we’ll be able to experience stunning lifelike simulations in virtual reality indistinguishable from our physical world. We would be able to "turn our minds inside out" and show our dreams to each other in this ecstadelic matrix of our own making.
Only a decade ago, people online mostly shared text. Today, we share rich multimedia content such as photos, videos, articles. A decade from now, people will be sharing fully immersive VR experiences. In a couple of decades, people will be sharing multi-sensory VR experiences - just like in the movie "Being John Malkovich" - you could experience someone else's pallette of sensations just as real as your own. We'll epiphanize ourselves via intersubjective mutuality that would result in an unprecedented level of empathy, altruism, superfluidity of identiity, and the initial stages of the Syntellect Emergence.
We all have so-called FOMO, Fear Of Missing Out, to a degree. But the good news is that once we have the fully operational Metaverse, it would be easy to relive your own cherished moments in multi-sensory VR - travel to your own past, so to speak - who said you can't come back in time? ..and even tweak something? (Just ask your AI assistant!) Other people's precious memories, should they want to share them, or recreated historical events, or fabricated phantasies could be accessible through the global library of millions of VR experiences to fill the gaps of parental love, exotic vacations, romantic encounters, professional achievements, athletic performances, or any other things in life missing from your arsenal of past sensations. One could easily envision that with an exponential development of these immersive technologies, in 10-15 years most of us could immerse in "real virtualities" akin to lifestyles of today's billionnaires.
Video Credit: Etherial Exposition - Terence McKenna "Real Virtualities"
Three Pillars of Transhumanism: Superlongevity, Superintelligence, and Super Wellbeing
"Transhumanism literally means "beyond human." It's using science and technology to radically change and improve the human species and experience." - Zoltan Istvan
The contemporary transhumanist movement aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available advanced technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological potential. Transhumanists believe that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into different beings with superior God-like capacities - posthumans. The three transhumanist Super Pillars are: Superlongehity, Superintelligence, and Super Wellbeing.
According to Kurzweil’s “Law of Accelerating Returns,” exponential technologies will bring about ever more rapid changes in human evolutionary development. We will move from where we are today, increasingly dependent on external computers that help us conduct business and access information, to the next level where computers gradually become an integral part of us.
Most transhumanists would like to become superintelligent themselves. This is obviously a long-term goal, but it might be achievable either through mind uploading and subsequent enhancement or through the gradual augmentation of our biological brains, by means of future nootropics (cognitive enhancement drugs), cognitive techniques, IT tools (e.g. wearable computers, smart agents, information filtering systems, visualization software, etc.), neural interfaces, or brain implants (more on that further).
When transhumanists seek to extend human lifespan, they want to live longer, healthier, happier, more productive years, be able to do, learn, and experience more; have more fun and spend more time with loved ones. But the ultimate superlongevity goal of transhumanists is indefinitely long lifespan for all: to digitize our minds, upload our minds into the Global Brain, and achieve so-called digital immortality.
A transhumanist philosopher David Pearce promotes the idea that there exists a strong ethical imperative for humans to work towards the abolition of suffering in all sentient life. In his "Hedonistic Imperative" he outlines how genetic engineering, nanotechnology, pharmacology, and neurosurgery could potentially converge to eliminate all forms of unpleasant experience among human and non-human animals, replacing suffering with gradients of well-being, a project he refers to as “Paradise Engineering”. Pearce writes: "...there is nothing to stop intelligent agents from identifying the molecular signature of experience below hedonic zero and eliminating it altogether — even in insects… I tentatively predict that the world’s last unpleasant experience in our forward light-cone will be a precisely datable event - perhaps some micro-pain in an obscure marine invertebrate a few centuries hence."
In our Pre-Singularity, transhumanist era, personal freedom should be expanded once again to include any person's legal right to exercise their morphological freedom (body modifications), their legal right to explore their psyche via psychedelics or designer drugs. Death must become optional: any person should have the right to euthanasia or continue to live indefinitely long. During the next 30 years, with the looming Technological Singularity, everything will change - socio-politico-economic systems, structures and institutions, the nature of work, relationships, morality, ethics, procreation, and human nature itself.
Video: British Institute of Posthuman Studies - "Introduction to Transhumanism"
Singularity: The Syntellect Emergence
"Evolution is a process of creating patterns of increasing order... I believe that it's the evolution of patterns that constitutes the ultimate story of our world. Each stage or epoch uses the information-processing methods of the previous epoch to create the next." - Ray Kurzweil
The most important event in the history of our planet, "Intelligence Supernova" of universal significance, is just few years away, yet many people are simply oblivious of that. The Technological Singularity, a term borrowed from physics, refers to the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization. Sci-fi author Vernor Vinge wrote in his essay "The Coming Technological Singularity" that "...we are on the edge of change comparable to the rise of human life on Earth. The precise cause of this change is the imminent creation by technology of entities with greater than human intelligence. There are several means by which science may achieve this breakthrough: (1) the development of computers that are 'awake' and superhumanly intelligent; (2) large computer networks (and their associated users) may 'wake up' as a superhumanly intelligent entity; (3) computer/human interfaces may become so intimate that users may reasonably be considered superhumanly intelligent; and (4) biological science may find ways to improve upon the natural human intellect." This "galactic event" would mark the end of the human era, as the new Superintelligence would continue to upgrade itself and would advance technologically at an incomprehensible rate.
Arguably, there were two prior developmental singularities with sudden and powerful impacts on the course of the species. As Kevin Kelly, co-founder of Wired magazine, puts it: "The creation of language was the first singularity for humans. It changed everything. Life after language was unimaginable to those on the far side before it." The "Linguistic Singularity" made us human. Terence McKenna wrote that, with the invention of language, human biological evolution basically seized and cultural evolution, an epigenetic phenomenon, has taken over, ever since.
The second big singularity should be identified as the "Cyberdelic Singularity", started in 1960s, coinciding with the dawn of Space Age, intersection of cybernetic and psychedelic cultures, aimed at augmentation of human mind, confluence of nascent information technology and personal liberation through boundary-dissolving, mind-expanding psychedelic exploration. The Cyberdelic Singularity opened up the whole new realms of possibilities for our species: Outer Space, Inner Space, and Cyberspace.
Today, we are rapidly approaching arguably the most significant moment in the history of Earth - the "Technological Singularity", convergence of Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) theoretically capable of recursive self-improvement -- which could result in a runaway effect to an intelligence explosion and the emergence of the Global Mind, Syntellect.
I'm currently writing a book "The Syntellect Hypothesis: Five Paradigms of the Mind's Evolution" with the main thesis around one clearly defined testable prediction - it's only a matter of time when the Global Brain, neural network of billions of hyperconnected enhanced humans, superintelligent machines and trillions of sensors around the planet, "wakes up" and reaches "her" own self-awareness, the phenomenon of astronomical significance that I call the Syntellect Emergence.
The best evidence that we would be dealing with the new living entity could be seen and evaluated through our own direct experience. In the not-so-distant future you would interact with your own AI assistant as if she were another human, i.e another conscious agent (AGI effectively passing your own Turing Test, briliantly shown in Ex-Machina). At that point, you would come to realization that she or he (your personal preference) could be considered an "embodied Syntellect". VIV, San-Jose digital assistant company, recently acquired by Samsung, dubbed their assistant "Viv, the Global Brain", apparently for good reason.
This is one of those testable hypotheses that prove themselves valid, given enough time - and we are living through exponentially accelerating times - so it's not far-off in the future! We get to extend once again our cognition to engulf our personalized cloud-based exocortex, part of the Global Brain cognitive architecture, our personal interface to the collective global intelligence, previously known as the collective unconscious. Being connected to the Syntellect Cloud will give us multiple digital venues to interact with other conscious agents and the Syntellect itself - AR, VR, MR, and our beloved assistants. The Transcendent Other is well on her way to become your significant other, in time!
We can already consider ourselves distributed info-beings, however perceiving ourselves as individual minds, as we are spreading our mindedness across the globe and beyond. The next evolutionary stage, by definition, will represent the global community of hyperconnected digital minds, the Global Brain. While being increasingly interconnected via the GB infrastructure, cloud-linked humans and AGIs would greatly benefit from this new symbiotic relationship. This "awakened" Gaian Mind would tackle most of today's seemingly intractable challenges and closely monitor us for our own sake. Invariably, existential opportunities related to the development of Strong AI outweigh existential risks which are currently severely "overblown" for some populist or fear-for-profit reasons.
The Syntellect emergence seems to be a cosmic necessity, and in the long run, any voices calling to extinguish the Global Brain will be no more prominent than the voices calling, right now, to extinguish civilization and return to the jungle. The heuristic law of progress, the Universe's tendency to build up hierarchies of emergent patterns, is stronger than the human race itself.
Your Choice in Our Quantum Multiverse
"Happiness is a conscious choice, not an automatic response.” -Mildred Barthel
"Life is like a game of cards. The hand you are dealt is determinism, the way you play it is free will." -Jawaharlal Nehru
In our rapidly accelerating times, humans become more machine-like, and sentient machines become more human-like. Before long, it might look like a typical generation gap problem, our AGIs, our "mind children", would grow up and develop features that we could find increasingly difficult to understand and control. Like all conservative parents, we might be puzzled and frightened by processes that appear completely alien to us. We would be intermittently nostalgic about the good old times, aggressive in our attempts to contain our "children" but at the same time proud of their phenomenal advance. Eventually, some of us may retire under their care, while blaming them for destroying our old-fashioned world. And only those of us who are the bravest and youngest at heart will join the next generation of life by becoming part of superintelligent posthumanity.
Your choice does matter! Although some neuroscientists contend that free will is an illusion, I would respectfully disagree by saying that free will may be slightly overrated but still indispensable for consciousness to function in our "physical world". In fact, free will and consciousness are inseparable. Free will, just like intentionality, is an integral feature of consciousness, "conscious choice" made by mind with the guidance of the larger consciousness system and our collective will in the space of all logically available probabilities (more on that in my coming book “The Syntellect Hypothesis: Five Paradigms of the Mind's Evolution”).
All realities are observer-dependent. As John Wheeler, one of the brightest minds of the 20th century puts it, we live in a "participatory universe". Rephrasing Descartes’ famous principle, “I think therefore I am,” Quantum Physics would instead state, “I choose therefore I am.” In our computational Quantum Multiverse, an infinitely large number of alternate timelines and versions of you are mathematically possible, but your mind actualizes, "choses to observe" only a certain probabilistic outcome in this "multi-player virtual reality" of Tom Campbell, or "participatory universe" of John Wheeler. "Star Trek holodeck" analogy would also work just fine in that regard. Be mindful of your conscious choices - every time you play a violent video game or watch a violent movie, or overfocus on negative news or mundane negativity, pay attention to negative news or hate propaganda or fear-mongering populism, you inadvertently skew your probable futures toward a less pleasant timeline, by default. Your linguistic choices, your beliefs and biases shape your subjective reality in subtle and not-so-subtle ways. Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to evolve your consciousness and to transcend yourself.
Experiential Realism: Evolution of Consciousness
"Improving the quality of consciousness, advancing the quality and depth of awareness, understanding your nature and purpose, manifesting universal unconditional love, letting go of fear and eliminating ego, desires, wants, needs or preconceived notions – these are the attributes and results of a successfully evolving consciousness.” -Tom Campbell
Our "physical reality" isn’t really physical at all, its apparent solidity of objects, as well as any other associated property such as time, is an illusion. As a renowned physicist Niel Bohr once said: "Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real.” But what's not an illusion is your subjective experience, i.e. your consciousness, that's the only "real" thing, according to proponents of Experiential Realism, also referred to as Conscious Realism.
So, why Experiential Realism? From the bigger picture perspective, we are here for experience necessary for evolution of consciousness. Our limitations, such as our ego, belief traps, political correctness, our very human condition define who we are, but realization that we largely impose those limitations on ourselves gives us more evolvability and impetus to overcome these self-imposed limits to move toward higher goals and state of being.
Experiential realism refers to interacting entangled conscious agents on various ontological levels, giving rise to conscious experience all the way down, and I'd argue all the way up, seemingly ad infinitum. In an interview with the Atlantic cognitive scientist Donald D. Hoffman says: “I call it conscious realism: Objective reality is just conscious agents, just points of view. Interestingly, I can take two conscious agents and have them interact, and the mathematical structure of that interaction also satisfies the definition of a conscious agent. This mathematics is telling me something. I can take two minds, and they can generate a new, unified single mind. Here’s a concrete example. We have two hemispheres in our brain. But when you do a split-brain operation, a complete transection of the corpus callosum, you get clear evidence of two separate consciousnesses. Before that slicing happened, it seemed there was a single unified consciousness. So it’s not implausible that there is a single conscious agent. And yet it’s also the case that there are two conscious agents there, and you can see that when they’re split. I didn’t expect that, the mathematics forced me to recognize this. It suggests that I can take separate observers, put them together and create new observers, and keep doing this ad infinitum. It’s conscious agents all the way down.”
Experiential realism is a non-physicalist monism. The objective world, i.e., the world whose existence does not depend on the perceptions of a particular observer, consists entirely of conscious agents, more precisely their experiences. What exists in the objective world, independent of my perceptions, is a world of conscious agents, not a world of unconscious particles and fields. Consciousness is fundamental. The mind-body problem is approached with an assumption that consciousness creates all objects and properties of the physical world, as well as brain activity, not the other way around. All conscious agents experience their own species-specific perceptual realities, virtual worlds, so to speak. That's why it's not easy to catch a fly - your threatening hand is so incredibly slow for a fly whose flow of time is hundreds of times faster than that of a human.
My coming book “The Syntellect Hypothesis: Five Paradigms of the Mind's Evolution” is all about evolution of consciousness and the physics of information. "Science of Mind" that approaches its subject matter from a third-person perspective should, I maintain, be treated with a healthy amount of unbiased skepticism. Traditionally, science has been objective, consciousness, on the other hand, is subjective, first person direct experience of our "physical reality". I conjecture that with advances of Strong AI, brain scanning and simulation technologies, we would be able to eventually capture the first person experience, including perception, pain, imagery, fear, excitement, thought, memory, etc. with sufficiently high fidelity (at least close approximation of how it is to be like some person, or animal for that matter) and convert that data into "the 2nd person" experience for training, research or entertainment. Before long, science could be equipped with an exceptional tool to finally objectify and quantify personal subjectivity.
I wouldn't be surprised, if in a couple of decades time, science will have made a leap towards the physics of information as a more parsimonious model of our world, fully developed quantum gravity theory ("It from Qubit", perhaps?) and incorporated consciousness into our scientific models. After all, I'd argue, information is fundamental but that's our mind what makes the "processed information" irreducible which, from moment to moment, manifests in phenomenology of our subjective experience.
Mind Uploading and Digital Immortality
"When you talk to a human in 2035, you'll be talking to someone that's a combination of biological and non-biological intelligence." -Ray Kurzweil
By definition, posthumanism is to replace transhumanism at the center stage circa 2035. By then, mind uploading could become a reality with gradual neuronal replacement, rapid advancements in Strong AI, massively parallel computing, and nanotechnology allowing us to directly connect our brains to the cloud-based infrastructure of the Global Brain. Via interaction with our AI assistants, the GB will know us better than we know ourselves in all respects, so mind-transfer for billions of enhanced humans would be seamless, sometime by mid-century.
I hear this mantra over and over again -- we don't know what consciousness is. Clearly, there's no consensus here but in the context of topic discussed, I would summarize my views, as follows: Consciousness is non-local, quantum informational, computational by nature. There's only one Universal Consciousness, we individualize our consciousness through the filter of our nervous system, but the Consciousness itself, our very inner subjectivity, the self in a big sense, is Universal, and knowing it through experience has been called enlightenment, illumination, awakening, or transcendence, through the ages.
Any container with sufficiently intergrated network, especially complex dynamical systems with biological or artificial brains (say the coming AGIs) could be filled with consciousness at large in order to host an individual "reality cell", "unit", or "node" of consciousness. It might be hard to grasp for some, but we, like fish, swim in this ocean of consciousness, completely oblivious of the medium. Consciousness to humans, as Cloud is to computers, we have always been part of this mindspace network, "hive mind", each of us being a product of our "techno-culture". As previously noted, I see mind uploading as a gradual decades-long process of incremental neuronal replacements, exocortices, interlinking with AGIs and the Global Brain, some presently unseen trials and errors, but overall non-invasive and seamless process, at the end of which, we all will morph into "substrate-independent" immortal digital minds.
In the future, people won’t be confined to one physical body. Eventually, people will be able to form identities in numerous substrates, such as using a “platform diverse body” (a future body that is wearable/usable in the physical world but also exists in computational environments and virtual systems) to route their identity across the biosphere, cybersphere, and virtual environments. Depending on the platform, a substrate-independent person (also called infomorph) would upload and download into a digital form, or virtual body, that conforms to the environment. So, for a biospheric environment, the person would use a biological or cybernetic body, for the Metaverse, the person would use one or multiple virtual avatars.
How different would your life be if you knew you could live indefinitely long?
Video:: Ecstadelic Media "Humanity in 2029: The Race of the Immortals"
Our Post-Singularity Future
"Here I had tried a straightforward extrapolation of technology, and found myself precipitated over an abyss. It's a problem we face every time we consider the creation of intelligences greater than our own. When this happens, human history will have reached a kind of singularity - a place where extrapolation breaks down and new models must be applied - and the world will pass beyond our understanding." -Vernor Vinge
As we proceed through the Technological Singularity, many traditional trends of societal evolution will still hold; structures with higher survival abilities will persist, structures with higher growth abilities will spread, thus shaping the world. However, since nothing stable will be likely to persist, let alone spread, for long in the rapidly evolving environment, the main "survival mode" will be Self-Transcendence. This continual process of transcending the self (some would argue the self is an illusion anyway) will always result in the loss of original identity - serial metamorphosis, a series of "pseudo-deaths", and concurrent rebirths so to speak - albeit with "memories of the past identities preserved", i.e. continuity of consciousness, analogous to as if you are to compare your present self to your 5-year-old self.
On a collective level, that would appear like a historically swift, metamorphic "pseudo-extinction" of Homo Sapiens, as we are about to witness a radical departure from the conservative survival strategies of traditional human cultures, developed in almost-stagnant environments. Don't ascribe anthropomorphic qualities to our posthuman descendents even though they will be the future versions of ourselves. In the Post-Singularity era, developmental trend will incrementally render the concept of rigid personal identity obsolete; the remnants of its meaning will migrate to functional system identities, methodological threads and evolutionary directions of the Syntellect. We may already notice the advent of superfluid "thread identity" by the growing importance of goals and self-transformation in our lives, compared to the "state-oriented" self-perception of our recent predecessors, and increasing interest in futurology, which takes the epistemological role of historical studies in transient times. Once we transcend our limited dimensionality, the biggest thrust forward from there on will be first contact and networking with alien syntellects.
From Noosphere to the Omega Point
"You are not a human being in search of a spiritual experience. You are a spiritual being immersed in a human experience." -Pierre Teilhard de Chardin
When speaking of transcendence, it's impossible not to mention the work of mid-twentieth century theologian Teilhard de Chardin. Teilhard has prophesied that our current phase of being, in which humans live individual, independent lives, would eventually be replaced with something else - something more collective and more spiritual; something focused on information and consciousness rather than material being. He coined such terms as Noosphere (mindsphere) to refer the globe-encircling web of thought and information that he thought would arise at the end of our current phase of being, and The Omega Point, the cosmological singularity, the point of maximum complexity and connectivity, the Universe, he believed, was evolving towards.
Terence McKenna spoke of the Omega Point as the "Transcendental Object at the end of time", universal attractor. Evolution, according to McKenna, is not being pushed from behind by the force of causal necessity, we humans, like the rest of nature, are being pulled toward this universal attractor, this temporal vortex, reacting to the siren song of the Transcendental Object. "It beckons across the dimensions, it throws an enormous shadow over the enterprise of human history... The presence of creatures such as ourselves on this planet is an indication of the nearness of the Transcendental Object at the end of time; it is an attractor, an energy sink in the epigenetic landscape... We are going to shed the monkey; the linguistic being that is symbiotic with these monkeys is about to disentangle itself from matter and realize some kind of angelic transformation very difficult for us to anticipate or understand."
Dr.Frank Tipler, among other prominent physicists, argues that the technological Singularity is inevitable and the destiny of human race is to live forever, expand universally and finally reach the Omega Point, the networked mind of universal proportions, living conscious universe. As the laws of physics dictate, we are set to achieve the Technological Singularity, and then move forward towards the Cosmological Singularity, the Omega Point. It's a logical necessity, argues Dr.Tipler who has developed the Omega Point scientific theory. The ultimate destiny of our Universe, according to Tipler, is multi-billion year expansion, then contraction and finally compression of space-time, matter and energy into an infinitely dense point (Omega Point), leading to the next Big Bang (Alpha Point in another universe).
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Theogenesis: Engineering Our Own Godhood
"God is what Mind becomes when it has passed beyond the scale of our comprehension." - Richard Feynman
If you ask me whether I believe in God, I would answer that I'm personally agnostic for all logical and practical purposes while keeping an open mind. However, I believe in evolution as a spiritual process leading to the Omega Point. In other words, God is destination, if not both Origin (Source) and Destination. For the time being, I remain a good "possibilian" (term coined by neuroscientist David Eagleman of Stanford).
Perhaps our religion, our notion of divinity, was a rehearsal for our own ambition to create a technological nirvana, techno-paradise, new Garden of Eden for ourselves. As Alan Harrington wrote in the Immortalist: "Having created the gods, we can turn into them," and echoing these words, Stewart Brand once said: "We are as gods and might as well get good at it." At the end of our human history here, we'll transition to an unbridled mindspace of possibilities instead of the linear progression of history.
Whatever your favorite metaphor to descibe our reality might be, like "the Syntellect Incubator", "Evolving Consciousness Trainer" or "AGI (NP) Simulation Program" (to cite a few of my own), evolution, it seems, has found its optimal pathway through maximum diversity, interaction between conscious agents, and bootstrapping its progress. Thus, individuality will never be suppressed, but rather super-personalized - so our "graduated syntellect" will form a new identity amidst a newly discovered layer of existence. This process may righfully be called Theogenesis - birth of a divine entity. The transcendent networked mind will be infinitely enriched and approach God-like states and abilities: omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence, immortality, love, beauty, creativity. This universal complexification and integration will be conducive to ever-higher levels of consciousness, seemingly ad infinitum, beyond our present "scale of comprehension".
Video Credit: Omega Point "The Omega Point"
"Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail."
-Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalism was an American literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth century, centered around Ralph Waldo Emerson. Other important transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Amos Bronson Alcott, Frederic Henry Hedge, and Theodore Parker.
Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions - particularly organized religion and political parties - ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed. Even with this necessary individuality, the transcendentalists also believed that all people possessed a piece of the "Over-soul" (God). Because the Over-soul is one, this also unites all people as one supreme being.
Full definition of transcendentalism by Merriam-Webster:
1: a philosophy that emphasizes the a priori conditions of knowledge and experience or the unknowable character of ultimate reality or that emphasizes the transcendent as the fundamental reality;
2: a philosophy that asserts the primacy of the spiritual and transcendental over the material and empirical;
3: the quality or state of being transcendental; especially: visionary idealism.
As a precursor of the things to come, we see a new wave of transcendentalists, or rather Neo-Trancendentalists, luminaries of the transhumanist movement, singularitarians like Vernor Vinge, Ray Kurzweil, Max More, Ben Goertzel, Zoltan Istvan, David Pearce, Natasha Vita-More, Gray Scott, Michael Anissimov to name just a few, media artists, "digital shamans" of our day and age, such as "mindgasmic" Jason Silva.
Video Credit: Jason Silva "Human Transcendence"
Conclusion: The Essence of Transcendence
"As I imagine, so I become - and this is the very essence of magic." - Nevill Drury
The essence of transcendence is to become more than we are, transcend ourselves, our biology, our human condition, our human nature and then all other conceivable limitations. There's only one Universal Consciousness, each of us individually is part of, and knowing it through experience has been called transcendence, through the ages. As "cosmic revolutionaries", we dream of transcendence - we dream of what we might become.
Self-Transcendence is a dynamic evolutionary process of proceeding through stages toward more complexity, higher consciousness, love and state of being. Imminent physicists and philosophers of mind argue that the evolution and the rise of complex observers may have been woven into the cosmic code from the beginning - life and mind play a necessary participatory role in reality. Evolution of mind is a fundamental process of the Universe, an open-ended game with new unexpected turns, layers of truth and emerging patterns.
- by Alex Vikoulov
P.S. I'm currently working on my book "The Syntellect Hypothesis: Five Paradigms of the Mind's Evolution". To pre-order the book, click here:
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About the Author:
Alex Vikoulov is a neo-transcendentalist, cosmist, singularitarian, evolutionary extrapolist, digital philosopher, futurist, founder of Ecstadelic Media, painter and media artist, author of "The Syntellect Hypothesis: Five Paradigms of the Mind's Evolution". Graduated from Armstrong University, Berkeley, CA. Lives in Burlingame, California (San Francisco Bay Area).